The scientific fields covered by the NanoBioSciences axis are highly diverse by essence.
Submicron sizes are well adapted for studying cellular mechanisms, for example via the development of functionalized nanoparticles used like "stealth" probes of living organisms or, on the contrary for local activation. Nanomanipulation of single molecules (DN, proteins, molecular motors,...) by variety of experimental techniques yields otherwise inaccessible information on molecular-scal processes wich allows their modeling.
On the other hand, nanotechnologies can address problems like species separation or delection at very low concentrations either through the development of novel sensors or by their integration in devices. In this line, a generalized use of microfluidics provides a good control of the microenvironment while the development of nano-objects leads to new drug delivery, in vivo diagnostics or therapeutic approaches.
These experimental efforts towards Biology would not be possible without parallel developments in instrumentation and materials. The novel nano-objects and aptical microscopy, atomic-force microscp^y, micro and nano-manipulation or micro-fluidic techniques and the perspectives they open up, are good exemples of the developments.